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Asian stocks rose Monday, lifted by what appeared to be an at least temporary thaw in trade tension between the U.Equity indexes in China, Hong Kong, Japan and South Korea all rose.Investors are being caught in the middle of China’s biggest business rivalry, as those looking to get in on a private fundraising by Jack Ma’s financial-technology firm must agree not to invest in companies controlled by major rivals like Tencent Holdings How to get a college presentation agricultural technology British Standard single spaced 67 pages / 18425 words.
Investors are being caught in the middle of China’s biggest business rivalry, as those looking to get in on a private fundraising by Jack Ma’s financial-technology firm must agree not to invest in companies controlled by major rivals like Tencent Holdings.
Click to follow Indy/Life The beginning of June brings with it Open Farm Sunday, which paints a reassuring picture of the food industry: families can see pigs wallowing happily in the mud, chickens scratching on the range and cows and sheep grazing in the fields across the UK.However, this unfortunately is not the reality for 70 per cent of the 75 billion animals farmed worldwide each year Many colonies would encourage migration in order to create a workforce or a It receives an average of over 5,000 different visitors every single day of the year. Incidentally, I have written a page explaining how British schools have dealt with Europe was densely populated, it had a reasonably high technology level .However, this unfortunately is not the reality for 70 per cent of the 75 billion animals farmed worldwide each year. Open Farm Sunday, sponsored by some of the UK’s biggest supermarkets, doesn’t open its doors to the millions of caged chickens, the pigs trapped in farrowing crates and the cows being intensively milked right here in Britain.As both a meat and animal lover, it's a tough truth to face.I’m now what’s known as “flexitarian” – someone who eats less meat, and only very high welfare – and started a website bicbim, to help like-minded people source ethical produce .
I’m now what’s known as “flexitarian” – someone who eats less meat, and only very high welfare – and started a website bicbim, to help like-minded people source ethical produce.
After more than three years of research – speaking to everyone from campaign groups including Compassion in World Farming (CIWF), certification schemes such as Red Tractor and RSPCA Assured, and the supermarkets willing to talk to me, like the Co-Op – I’m still digging to find the truth behind the labelling.It’s extremely difficult to get a clear understanding of what the life of an animal is really like from birth to slaughter, and how this differs for each standard and supermarket brand.Clever marketing using words such as ‘farm fresh’, ‘British’, ‘natural’ are meaningless when it comes to animal welfare, but conveniently lead people to believe they’re purchasing a higher-quality product.It’s fair to assume that the higher the cost, the higher the welfare, but that’s not necessarily the case either.
“Packaging on animal products can be designed to make consumers feel better about what they are buying.Pictures of animals happily grazing in rolling fields do nothing to inform people of the truth about how farm animals are actually raised,” says CIWF’s chief executive, Philip Lymbery.“It’s all terribly confusing and I’m sure it’s all meant to be terribly confusing so the likes of you and me stay away from this stuff.” What follows is the first in our four-part series that focuses first on chickens, then cows, pigs and sheep.It reveals how farming has developed since the Second World War, when government policy first began to incentivise and subsidise factory farming as a means to feed the nation.
It exposes how this has gone way too far, and how humanity has been forgotten in push for more and ever cheaper meat.Fowl play Ironically, our favourite meat, chicken, arguably gets the rawest deal.In the UK alone, we now eat more than a staggering 900 million chickens each year.Even more shockingly, less than 10 per cent of chickens are produced in what are considered to be 'higher welfare' conditions.People flocked to chicken after reports started linking our high red meat consumption to cancer.
Touted as ‘'low in fat, high in protein'’, it has become the go-to meat for many diets and fitness regimes.What the labels really mean Organic Outside space: one bird per 4sqm Birds are given good natural light and the most space to roam around indoors, and are encouraged from an early age to roam free-range.Slower growing breeds are used, which means birds develop at a natural rate.They eat organic food and individual birds are only given antibiotics if absolutely necessary.Soil Association is generally considered the highest welfare organic certification.
Free-range Outside space: one bird per sqm Birds are given natural light and more space to roam around, and are also encouraged to roam free-range.RSPCA assured Outside space: not always required Chickens can be free-range (as above) or indoor-bred, and this will be clearly labelled.The indoor-bred chickens have significantly better lives than intensively reared chickens – with natural light and natural enrichment (perches, objects to peck at such as straw bales and vegetables).Red tractor Outside space: not required This is the most common food safety standard required by most retailers.Their animal welfare standards are inline with the minimum required by law, which are widely considered to be insufficient.
This means chickens are too tightly packed into barns, don’t have to be given natural light, and can be bred to grow unnaturally fast.Kosher and halal When it comes to chicken welfare, these are mainly concerned with the slaughter method.Halal requires the animal to be alive at point of death, but it is often stunned first.British/ corn fed/ fresh Meaningless terms when it comes to animal welfare.
99 meal deals are also on the rise – along with obesity.There’s only one way it’s possible to produce meat this cheaply: factory farming.Despite Jamie Oliver’s and Hugh Fearnley-Whingstall’s best efforts – which began with their TV campaigns against battery-farmed chickens almost 10 years ago – conditions for the majority of birds hasn’t improved.In fact, the number of higher-welfare chickens in the UK is at its lowest in a decade, according to Jamie’s Food Revolution.
To meet our increasing demand for white meat, and to keep prices low, farmers have been forced into new levels of efficiency.They now produce chickens that grow at phenomenally unnatural rates and have the equivalent amount of space as an A4 piece of paper to live on.“Frankly they have more space when they are dead and in the oven than alive,” says Lymbery.Yet, most birds can barely stand let alone walk by the time they reach six weeks old and are ready to be slaughtered for meat.This is because they have been bred to grow so fast their legs simply haven’t had the time to develop the muscles to support their weight.
“If a newborn baby grew as fast as your average supermarket chicken, by her third birthday she would weigh 28 stone,” says RSPCA’s chicken welfare specialist, Kate Parkes.The true cost Aside from the obvious animal welfare issues, this means these chickens aren’t actually as healthy for us as we have been led to believe.One report reveals intensively reared chickens contain as much fat, gram for gram, as a Big Mac.Plus, they are routinely fed antibiotics to prevent disease caused by living in such close confinement, which is leading to a rise in resistance to the drugs in humans.
At the other end of the farming spectrum, slower-growing better-fed organic chickens contain less saturated fat and higher omega-3 fatty acids, which are good for your heart.
The birds are also only given antibiotics if absolutely necessary. Whenever buying chicken Lymbery advises consumers look for three labels only: organic – the highest welfare standard – free-range and RSPCA Assured, which offers a further set of welfare standards.
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For example, RSPCA Assured is the certification that prohibits the slaughter of chicken via the frequently used shackling system, where birds are hung upside down by their ankles and stunned in a water bath with an electrical current running through it. Their studies show that this is painful and not 100 per cent effective, and using low doses of carbon-dioxide is a more humane way of killing birds for meat.What’s put first, the chicken or the egg? We’re a nation of animal lovers, and when given clear choices the majority of us make the more humane one 29 Jul 2016 - to writing CVs and cover letters for jobs in the UK. If you need Morning appointments can be booked from 9.30am the day before you'd like order to create more space. In almost all cases your CV should be no longer than two sides of A4. For example write “10 GCSEs including Maths and English,..
What’s put first, the chicken or the egg? We’re a nation of animal lovers, and when given clear choices the majority of us make the more humane one.
“Eggs are a really good success story of labelling,” says Jon Walton from the Soil Association. “The free-range market was recognised and labelled with the distinction between barn and caged and consumers made an informed choice to latch on to the higher welfare brand This course guide has been written for master's students in the following programmes: agriculture (MOA), Plant biotechnology (MPB), Plant sciences (MPS), and Urban Finally, you should be officially registered as a Wageningen University MSc English in order to allow international students and staff members to .“The free-range market was recognised and labelled with the distinction between barn and caged and consumers made an informed choice to latch on to the higher welfare brand.” Around 60 per cent of eggs sold are now free-range, and a high proportion of those that are caged are sold to the food producers for ready-meals and sandwiches, as opposed to individual shoppers.Food and drink news 1/33 Britain consumes more chocolate than any other country Most people love chocolate but it turns out no one does more than the Brits – with the average Brit found to have consumed 8.4 kg of chocolate in 2017, according to new data.
Chocolate consumption around the world is on the rise, according to Mintel Global New Products Database (GNPD), which found that in the past year alone, Easter chocolate production has risen by 23 per cent 2/33 'Easter eggs should be banned for children under four' Dr Becky Spelman, chief psychologist at Harley Street’s Private Therapy Clinic, is calling for Easter eggs to be banned for consumption for children under the age of four, claiming that giving them the opportunity to binge on chocolate so young will give them an unhealthy relationship with food later on."This is a nightmare situation for parents of this generation as they have no idea how to teach their children to delay their response to cravings,” she said, explaining that too many young kids binge on these chocolates because their parents don’t know how to stop them."Once a child starts overeating behaviour at a young age it’s very hard to turn things around for them in terms of food and their eating habits moving forward, leading to obesity from at very young age," she added PA 3/33 Pineapple overtakes avocado as the UK's fastest-selling fruit According to Tesco, pineapple has overtaken avocado as the UK’s fastest-selling fruit, with sales increasing by 15 per cent in 2017.In comparison, avocado sales rose by just under 10 per cent last year.The popular supermarket says the surge in popularity comes as shoppers buying the versatile fruit are beginning to use it as a main ingredient in everything from curries and barbecues, to juices and cocktails Getty 4/33 Healthy living makes us more inclined to binge, research suggests Gluten-free breads, dairy-free milks and other plant-based products have been some of the most favoured foods in British supermarkets this year.
However, while we’re busy filling our shopping trolleys with gluten-free goodness, we’re also jamming it with junk food and alcohol, new research suggests Getty/iStock 5/33 Marks & Spencers launches stoneless avocados Rather than the result of genetic modification, the avocados are formed by an unpollinated avocado blossom.The fruit develops without a seed which in turns stops the growth, creating a small, seedless fruit.What’s more, the skin is actually edible, unlike a regular avocado.The flesh is much like that of a normal avocado - smooth and creamy, pale in colour and rich in flavour M&S 6/33 Office teabags contain 17 times more germs than a toilet seat, reveals study The average bacterial reading of an office teabag was 3,785, in comparison to only 220 for a toilet seat.Other pieces of kitchen equipment also stacked up highly in their findings, with the bacterial readings averaging at 2,483 on kettle handles, 1,746 on the rim of a used mug and 1,592 on a fridge door handle Getty Images/iStockphoto 7/33 New study shows drinking more coffee leads to a longer life There is good news and a final hope for coffee addicts and lovers.
You will now be able to drink coffee for longer as new study shows its can lead to a prolonged life.Scientists showed that those who drank between two and four cups of coffee a day had 18% lower risk of death compared to non-coffee drinkers.PA 8/33 Coke Zero is replaced with Coke Zero Sugar Coca-Cola is pulling the plug on its Coke Zero.The much loved drink will be replaced with a ‘new improved taste’.The move, backed with a £10 million campaign, is said to come from Coca-Cola supporting people to reduce their sugar intake.
Coca-Cola want people make this move while not sacrificing sugary taste of Coca-Cola.Coca-Cola 9/33 Starbucks introduce new avocado spread The avocado craze has grown from hipster brunch restaurants to Starbucks.Starbucks have introduced their new avocado spread earlier this year and it has the internet in debate.Some argue that it not a spread but guacamole while others question if there is any avocado in there at all.When buying the new spread you can also buy an optional toasted bagel.
It is a must try for all avocado connoisseurs.Starbucks 10/33 New Mars chocolate bar The iconic British chocolate bar is about to get its partner in crime.The new bar, named Goodness Knows, will replace the gooey caramel goodness of the mars bar with oats.It is said to be more like a Florentine biscuit with a thin dark chocolate bottom.While being moderately healthy Mars says that is has ‘good intentions’.
One pack has 154 calories and will sell for about 90p.Mars 11/33 Wine prices could increase because of Brexit Wine lovers across the UK might soon have to shell out close to a quarter more for their favourite tipple after Brexit, as a weaker pound and sluggish economy takes its toll, a new study shows Rex 12/33 Chocolate may be good for the heart A new study, published in the British Medical Journal: Heart, found that moderate chocolate intake can be positively associated with lessening the risk of the heart arrhythmia condition Atrial Fibrillation Getty Images/iStockphoto 13/33 Brits throw away 1.4 million bananas each year British families are throwing away 1.4 million bananas that are perfectly good to eat every day at cost of £80m a year, new figures have shown PA/Armin Weigel 14/33 Rosemary sales spike over exam time There has been a surge a surge in sales of the herb rosemary after a recent study found it helps improve memory.According to high street health food chain Holland & Barrett, sales of the herb have increased by 187 per cent compared to the same time last year Getty Images/iStockphoto 15/33 Gluten-free diets 'not recommended' for people without coeliac disease Avoiding wheat, barley and rye in the belief that a gluten-free diet brings health benefits may do more harm than good, according to a team of US nutrition and medicine experts Getty Images/iStockphoto 16/33 Starbucks launches two new coffee-based drinks Starbucks is launching two new coffee-based drinks in the UK, as it strives to tap into consumers’ growing appetite for healthy beverages.
The Cold Brew Vanilla sweet cream and the Cappuccino Freddo, will both be available in stores throughout the UK from the start of May Twitter/@SbuxCountyHall 17/33 Cadbury’s Dairy Milk Tiffin is making a permanent comeback after 80 years The Cadbury Dairy Milk Tiffin, first produced in 1937, is making a permanent comeback to the UK.The raisin and biscuit-filled chocolate bar is being launched after a successful trial last summer saw 3 million chocolate treats – at the cost of £1.49 for each 95g bar- purchased by nostalgic customers Cadburys 18/33 Pizza restaurant makes ‘world’s cheesiest’ 'Scottie's Pizza Parlor' in Portland Oregon has created the world’s cheesiest pizza using a total of 101 different cheese varieties.Facebook/Scottie's Pizza Parlor 19/33 A pizza joint in Portland Oregon has created the world’s cheesiest pizza using a total of 101 different cheese varieties.Why not eating before a workout could be better for your health A study published in the American Journal of Physiology by researchers at the University of Bath found you might be likely to burn more fat if you have not eaten first Getty Images/iStockphoto 20/33 New York restaurant named best in the world A New York restaurant where an average meal for two will cost $700 has been named the best in the world.
Eleven Madison Park won the accolade for the first time after debuting on the list at number 50 in 2010.The restaurant was praised for a fun sense of fine-dining, “blurring the line between the kitchen and the dining room” Getty Images 21/33 Why you crave bad food when you’re tired Researchers at Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University in Chicago recently presented their results of a study looking into the effects of sleep deprivation upon high-calorific food consumption.Researchers found that those who were sleep-deprived had “specifically enhanced” brain activity to the food smells compared to when they had a good night’s sleep Shutterstock 22/33 Drinking wine engages more of your brain than solving maths problems Drinking wine is the ideal workout for your brain, engaging more parts of our grey matter than any other human behaviour, according to a leading neuroscientist.Dr Gordon Shepherd, from the Yale School of Medicine, said sniffing and analysing a wine before drinking it requires “exquisite control of one of the biggest muscles in the body” Getty Images/iStockphoto 23/33 British dessert eating surges after people ditch healthy eating in February : In heartening news for anyone feeling guilty about quitting their New Year diet, it seems lots of us have given in to our sweet tooths once again.
New data from nationwide food-delivery service Deliveroo reveals there was a surge in Brits ordering desserts in February compared to the first month of 2017 Getty Images/iStockphoto 24/33 US congress debates definition of milk alternatives A new bill has been created that seeks to ban dairy alternatives from using the term ‘milk’.
Titled the DAIRY PRIDE Act, the name is a tenuous acronym for ‘defending against imitations and replacements of yogurt, milk, and cheese to promote regular intake of dairy every day’.It argues that the dairy industry is struggling as a result of all the dairy-free alternatives on the market and the public are being duped too Getty Images 25/33 Cadbury’s launches two new chocolate bars UK confectionary giant Cadbury has launched two new chocolate bars, hoping to lure those with a sweet tooth and perhaps help combat some of the challenges it faces from rising commodity prices and a post-Brexit slump in the value of the company’s new products will be peanut butter and mint flavoured.They will be available in most major super markets as 120g bars, priced at £1.49, according to the company Cadburys 26/33 You can now get a job as a professional chocolate eater The company responsible for some of your favourite chocolate brands – think Cadbury, Milks, Prince and Oreo – have officially announced an opening to join their team as a professional chocolate taster.
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The successful candidate will help them to test, perfect and launch new products all over the world.
Getty Images/iStockphoto 27/33 MSG additive used in Chinese food is actually good for you, scientist claims For years, we’ve been told MSG (the sodium salt of glutamic acid) - often associated with cheap Chinese takeaways - is awful for our health and to be avoided at all costs.But one scientist argues it should be used as a “supersalt” and encourages adding it to food Guidelines for applicants Technical Assistance projects European nbsp.But one scientist argues it should be used as a “supersalt” and encourages adding it to food.
86 in the week that ended on Friday, up from an average of £0.
56 in the previous week – that’s an almost 54 per cent increase.Getty Images 29/33 Food School Kids celebrate Food School graduation with James Martin – a campaign launched by Asda to educate young people on where food comes from.New research has revealed that children across the UK just aren’t stepping up to the plate when it comes to simple facts about the food they eat – with almost half of children under eight not knowing that eggs come from chickens RichardCrease/BNPS 30/33 ‘Do-It-Yourself’ restaurant To encourage more people to cook and eat together, IKEA has launched The Dining Club in Shoreditch – a fully immersive ‘Do-It-Yourself’ restaurant .Members of the public can book to host a brunch, lunch or dinner party for up to 20 friends and family.Supported by their very own sous chef and ma tre de, the host and their guests will orchestrate an intimate dining experience where cooking together is celebrated and eating together is inspirational Mikael Buck / IKEA 31/33 Ping Pong menu with a twist Gatwick Airport has teamed up with London dim sum restaurant Ping Pong to create a limited edition menu with a distinctly British twist; including a Full English Bao and Beef Wellington Puff, to celebrate the launch of the airport’s new route to Hong Kong 32/33 Zizzi unveil the Ma’amgharita Unique pizza art has been created by Zizzi in celebration of the Queen’s 90th birthday.
The pizza features the queen in an iconic pose illustrated with fresh and tasty Italian ingredients on a backdrop of the Union Jack 33/33 Blue potatoes make a comeback Blue potatoes, once a staple part of British potato crops, are back on the menu thanks to a Cambridge scientist turned-organic farmer and Farmdrop, an online marketplace that lets people buy direct from local farms.Cambridge PhD graduate-turned farmer, Adrian Izzard has used traditional growing techniques at Wild Country Organics to produce the colourful spuds, packed with healthy cell-protecting anthocyanin, which had previously disappeared from UK plates when post-war farmers were pushed towards higher-yielding varieties Thanks to consumer demand, Marks & Spencer, Waitrose, Sainsbury’s and Co-op have already implemented cage-free egg policies and the rest of the supermarkets have committed to going cage-free on all of the eggs sold on the shelves by 2024. We now need similar commitments for chickens reared for meat.No chickening out “We could easily write a gold standard for the treatment of animals tomorrow, that’s no problem,” say Dr Mark Cooper from RSPCA Assured.“But it’s got to be commercially viable and achievable for producers to work to and still at a cost where the public are willing to pay that extra for it.
” At times during this research, when talking to the humans behind meat production, I was hopeful that chicken farming might not be as bad as my early research suggested and that expos s on factory farms are showing the exception and not the rule.But the sad truth is that what would widely be considered to be an unacceptable standard of looking after animals has become normalised.High-welfare chickens delivered to your door Pipers Farm –You can read all about how these ‘properly’ free-range chickens are reared and slaughtered on their website.That’s the level of transparency we should have for all meat.Factory farming isn’t just the fault of a soulless corporation or heartless factory farmer, it’s a whole system which takes the humanity out of producing and eating meat.
And consumers have a huge role to play, because by buying meat that doesn’t have high welfare assurances we continue to make it profitable to farm animals in this way.You can buy a whole factory-farmed chicken from around £2 per kilogram.An organic chicken costs about four times that.Free-range is priced somewhere in the middle of the two.The question is would you be willing to pay extra – and perhaps eat meat less frequently to balance the costs – for an animal to be treated humanely? The honest answer to that will be revealed the next time you are in the supermarket.
Poached chicken salad with watercress, potatoes, cucumber and herbs This is a semi-warm salad, with lightly poached chicken breast and fresh herbs.We’ve added a little sharpness from the gherkin and lemon, and some peppery watercress for added punch.1 carrot 2 tbsp soured cream Salt and pepper First put the stock together for the chicken to poach in.Scrub and roughly chop the carrot, roughly chop 1 leek, washing it well before to remove any grit.Wash and roughly chop 1 of the celery sticks.
Put the chicken in a pan, one that will fit them fairly snugly.Add the carrot, celery, leek and parsley stalks only (save the leaves for later).Add enough water to cover the chicken well, plus an extra 5cm on top.Heat the pan, just until you can see the first few bubbles form before it starts to really boil, then turn the heat right down.Cook on a low heat, a bare simmer (no bubbles) for 15 minutes.While the chicken cooks, wash the potatoes (no need to peel).Cut any large ones in half or quarter’s, so they’re roughly all the same size.
Put them in a separate pan and add a good couple of pinches of salt.Bring the pan up to a boil, then cook until the potatoes are tender, about 12-15 minutes.Drain once cooked and keep to one side to cool a little.
Meanwhile, wash the chervil and watercress and leave to drain or pat dry with kitchen paper.
Cut it lengthways in half and scrape out the seeds with a small spoon.Once the chicken has poached for 15 minutes, turn off the heat and leave in the pan for a moment.
Chop the reserved parsley leaves and the chervil.Keeping a little parsley and chervil back to garnish the salad, add the rest along with the dried dill tops, gherkins and celery to the cucumber.Squeeze in the juice from quarter of the lemon.Pick off and discard any larger stalks from the watercress.Leave both chicken and potatoes to cool slightly, about 5 minutes or so.
Once cooled, thinly slice the chicken, holding it with a fork if it’s still a little too warm for you to handle.Arrange the watercress, potatoes, cucumber salad and chicken between 2 plates or wide bowls.Sprinkle over the reserved parsley and chervil to serve.
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Cooks notes: If you’ve a small appetite, keep some of the cooked potatoes, sliced chicken and watercress back and use them for a lunchbox salad the next day.Chicken, spinach and chickpea tagine with harissa and preserved lemon Harissa is a spicy blend of chilli, herbs and garlic.We’ve advised using half to start, tasting and adding more towards the end, depending on your preference for heat CV and cover letter LSE.We’ve advised using half to start, tasting and adding more towards the end, depending on your preference for heat.
We’re using baby spinach here, which can be wilted down in the pan in handfuls.If you make it again with larger leaf spinach, it’s best to blanch, refresh and chop it first.
100g wholemeal couscous Salt and pepper Boil a kettle of water Princeton Alumni Weekly Volume 61 Page 128 Google Books Result.100g wholemeal couscous Salt and pepper Boil a kettle of water.Add a glug of oil and a good pinch of salt.Pour over enough of the boiled water from the kettle to just cover the couscous.Peel and crush, grate or finely chop 1 large or 2 small garlic cloves.Scoop the flesh out of the preserved lemon and discard it.
Finely chop the rind; it is this that you want (the flesh is too salty).Read more Drain the tin of chickpeas into a colander and rinse with cold water.Season the chicken with a little salt and pepper.Heat 2 tablespoons of oil in a large, heavy based pan.Fry, turning the pieces now and then, until golden brown.Don’t crowd the pan, cook in 2 batches if needs be.Add the onion and a splash more oil to the same pan.Fry gently, stirring now and then for 10 minutes.
Add a splash of water if it looks like it might catch at any point.After 10 minutes, add the garlic, ginger, half the harissa, the preserved lemon, dried mint and dried apricots.Add chicken back to the pan, with the chickpeas.
Add 250ml of water, cover and cook on a medium heat for 10 minutes.
Check the liquid at intervals and add a little more water if needed.While the tagine is simmering, wash half the pack of coriander.After 10 minutes, add the spinach in handfuls, stirrring it in until just wilted, a few seconds at a time, per handful.Taste the dish and add a little more harissa depending on how hot you like your food.
Divide between 2 serving bowls or plates.Stir the coriander leaves into the tagine, check the seasoning and serve with the couscous.Cooks notes: Preserved lemons are a staple in my cupboard.If you fancy having a go at making them, we sell the kits from time to time.
Although it’s easy to buy them ready-made in jars now.It’s just the skins that are eaten, not the flesh.Often used in tagines, they’re also good for perking up salads or salsa.More about: Mobile Friendly Page Introduction At its peak, the British Empire was the largest formal empire that the world had ever known.As such, its power and influence stretched all over the globe; shaping it in all manner of ways.
This site is dedicated to analysing the history of the British Empire: The triumphs, the humiliations, the good that it brought and the bad that it inflicted.For better or worse the British Empire had a massive impact on the history of the world.It is for this reason that this site tries to bring to life the peoples, cultures, adventures and forces that made the Empire such a powerful institution.It is neither an apology for, nor a nostalgic reminiscence of the institution that so dominated the world for over two centuries.Rather, it analyses and describes the vast institution that so influenced the shape of the world that we see today.
Whether the British Empire is regarded as a positive force or a negative force in world history is in many ways rather irrelevant, the fact is that it was a transformative force and we should seek to try and understand it in its many and varied forms across the centuries of its existence and throughout its wide expanse.The British Empire was never a static institution, it constantly mutated, evolved and changed in reaction to events, opportunities and threats.The British Empire of the 1950s looked very different from that of the 1850s and certainly that of the 1750s and 1650s! It could often operate differently in a colony on one side of the world from a colony on the other side.Furthermore, the British Empire was comprised of an incredibly diverse set of actors through its many years of existence.Some of these were undoubtedly motivated by greed and selfishness.
However, others were motivated by more benign concerns, although often constrained by the social expectations of the era they operated within.For many more people, their experience with the British Empire was purely transactional.It provided a framework and institutions that offered many people new opportunities, rights and abilities whilst others felt constrained within it or perhaps had traditional rights removed or eroded.This website hopes to make sense of this diverse institution that reached into so many corners of the world, provided a platform for such a diverse set of characters and which existed for such an extended period of time.The Purpose of the Site First of all, I would like to make it clear that this site is not a rigorous academic site.
I am sure there are plenty of mistakes and oversights on my part; for which I apologise in advance.My interest in the subject is purely that of a personal journey of discovery; to give myself a reason to research what I regard as a fascinating subject.
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As long as I can remember, I have always been interested in imperial stories, films or histories.If I analyse it, I think that I am interested in the concept of why men and women were prepared to leave the world that they did know for one which was totally alien to them.Of course, not everyone had the luxury of choice; a decision was often forced upon many MSc Thesis Course Guide Wageningen University WUR.
Of course, not everyone had the luxury of choice; a decision was often forced upon many.
But even so, I am interested in how people coped with starting new lives in exotic or alien lands with different cultures, geography, languages, etc.Often they tried to bring their own culture with them, although this did not always work as intended 4 days ago - Order a custom surface transportation term paper British double spaced Rewriting College Neither the writers nor the editors bottle observe your s efficient our -agricultural-studies-presentation-oxford-business-single-spaced- good us - (yrs 1-2) 75 pages / 20625 words platinum a4 (british/european) .Often they tried to bring their own culture with them, although this did not always work as intended.Did they shape the destination or did the destination shape them? And what of the different experiences? What about those who went temporarily as part of a job or a contract compared to those who were trying to start a completely new life with no intention of ever returning home? There were huge population flows around and between the various colonies 4 days ago - Order a custom surface transportation term paper British double spaced Rewriting College Neither the writers nor the editors bottle observe your s efficient our -agricultural-studies-presentation-oxford-business-single-spaced- good us - (yrs 1-2) 75 pages / 20625 words platinum a4 (british/european) .Did they shape the destination or did the destination shape them? And what of the different experiences? What about those who went temporarily as part of a job or a contract compared to those who were trying to start a completely new life with no intention of ever returning home? There were huge population flows around and between the various colonies.This was an era before passports and immigration laws.
If you had the means to pay your passage (or have it provided for you), it was more than possible for you to move around this vast institution.Many colonies would encourage migration in order to create a workforce or a sustainable population to inhabit and defend it.Indeed, what were the motivations behind the creation of the Empire itself? And who were the people who made it possible? These are just some of the questions and themes that you will find addressed around this site.About the Author My name is Stephen Luscombe and I was a teacher for many years.(a port with major imperial connections as explained in an article on the site).I have also taught in France, the Middle East and Japan.I started the site in 1997 to try and combine my then two teaching subjects of ICT and history.I felt that creating a web-based history site would provide me with an excuse to hone both sets of skills.
The rationale to start this site in 1997 was also at least partly inspired by the handover of Hong Kong to China in that year which I felt to be a particularly important turning point in imperial and indeed World history.
At the time, the internet was a largely American-centric phenomenon and there was little on offer for the rest of the World.I do not think that I realised just how large and popular this site would become over the years.It receives an average of over 5,000 different visitors every single day of the year.It is currently over 20,000 pages in length and it grows insatiably.Incidentally, I have written a page explaining how British schools have dealt with the teaching of history and how this has changed and evolved over the years.
Although the chapter on how Brexit may influence the teaching of imperial history has yet to be written.I have been privileged to have been aided by a whole series of contributors over the years.There are too many to mention here, but all submissions, images, etc.
are gratefully acknowledged to the original authors or donors throughout the site.One group worth singling out is the Overseas Service Pensioners' Association (OSPA) which is made up of members of the Colonial Service.I have worked closely with this organisation and integrating their stories and accounts of their time living and working in the British Empire.Much of their material can be found in the Articles section.Can you Help? If you have any material that you would like to add to the site then do not hesitate to contact me.
Whether you have some old family photos, an article that you have written, a book or film review or whatever, if it is connected to the British Empire in some way, I would be delighted to host it on the site.Of course, there is a facebook page and an Email discussion group where you can post short commentaries, requests or ask questions.The only rules are that posts are connected to imperial history in some form or another and that a high level of civility and politeness is maintained at all times.You can also help by donating money to keep this site operational.
All of the material on the site is provided for free and that will always be the policy of the site.However, it does cost money to maintain it on its server, for the time spent curating the material and to continuously enhance the site.Any donation, however small, would be gratefully received and would help maintain this as a free resource for all who want or need it.You can donate through paypal here: Better yet, you can become a regular supporter and pay a monthly amount to help allow me to dedicate yet more time, effort and energy on improving and expanding the site: Regular Supporter Options: Option 2 : #10.00 GBP - monthly Those with technical and coding skills may be able to help also.I would gladly take advice on the best ways of updating the coding and facilities within the website and maximising the reach of the material on this site.Another way to help if you are a webmaster or blog writer is to link to this site - either to the home page or to specific pages within the site.These links help to promote the site on various search engines and so help others to find information on colonial topics.I am always willing to reciprocate if your site has an imperial connection or theme in any way.
What Period of History is Covered? Defining the start and finish for the dates of the British Empire has not been an easy task.It is generally divided into two distinct Empires.The First Empire revolved primarily, but not exclusively, around the settler colonies of the Americas.These would be termed the Thirteen Colonies and would gain their independence from Britain in 1783.The Second Empire then developed from the remnants of the First - particularly India - and were added to during the Napoleonic Wars and then throughout the Nineteenth Century and even into the beginning of the Twentieth Century.
It is this Second, predominantly Victorian, Empire that most people associate with the British Empire.This site actually covers both - but it is useful to be able to separate the two entities.I tend to use the convenient bookends of 1497 to 1997 which makes for a pleasing five hundred year synchronicity.The first date marks the very first overseas 'English' colony of Newfoundland claimed as they sought a route to the riches of the Orient through a hoped for North-West Passage.The 1997 date represents the British withdrawing from their last sizeable (at least in population terms) and economically significant colony of Hong Kong.
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This date is a little more arbitrary in that there are just over a dozen territories still directly governed by Britain scattered across the globe.I suppose the Falkland Islands represent the biggest of these remaining colonies and the 1982 Falklands War was certainly the last colonial war.It is actually said that the British territories are still scattered enough around the world that the sun still does not technically set on the British Empire 22-24, 36th Annual Philadelphia Folk Festival, Old Pool Farm, Schwenksville, Pa. 10, SESAC Latin Music Awards, Big Time Studio, Miami Beach, Fla. Producer: How The Role Of The Producer Is Being Changed By Technology, National include The Hut- Sut Song, Rose O'Day, My Devotion, 111 Get By, and .It is actually said that the British territories are still scattered enough around the world that the sun still does not technically set on the British Empire.
I believe that Pitcairn Island just about allows the sun to track over the Pacific Ocean and still be shining directly on administered British territory.Of course the sun never sets on the Empire on this website They are definitely going to Europe but they certainly will not do that until the very In the ceremonies preceding his retirement he was presented with the Army's Legion in the performance of outstanding services in the Department of English. increase in agricultural production, the building up of their industry, and other .
Of course the sun never sets on the Empire on this website.
What Period is not Covered? Confusingly, the two distinct British Empires outlined above are sometimes referred to as the Second and Third Empires respectively.It has been known for historians to refer to the Norman expansion of their Angle-lands (England) as being a distinctive Empire building era of its own.This empire building would include the addition of Wales, the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and the first establishment of outposts in Ireland.It does get confusing because the Normans themselves came from the North of France and so was it a Norman/French Empire or a distinctive English Empire? In fact the Normans were descended from the Viking settlers who themselves had settled in the North of France - so was it a Viking Empire even? This Anglo-French Empire, if I can call it that, would later be referred to as the Angevin Empire.
It really began to disintegrate into the two distinctive countries of England and France during the Hundred Years War.
Although even after that, England maintained a toe-hold in the north of France at Calais until Mary Tudor finally lost control of it in 1558, although the Channel Islands do still technically remain part of the UK.This website does not go into this medieval period at all.It does not really expand on the creation of Britain or the formation of the United Kingdom; the one exception being Ireland which had a profoundly complicated relationship with Britain and the imperial experience in general.I have regarded Wales and Scotland as integral parts of Great Britain, allowing for the fact that Scotland did not join the Union until 1707, partly as a result of its financially ruinous experience with its own Scottish Empire at Darien/New Caledonia.Ironically, the Scottish in particular would thrive within the opportunities provided by the British Empire.
Technically, Britain should only be used from this 1707 date onwards, so the period of 1497 to 1707 should really be termed an English Empire - although Wales was part of that political entity.Additionally, I have tended to avoid 'European' politics, wars and diplomacy unless they had a direct bearing on the Empire itself.For example, I have not covered any of the European campaigns of the Napoleonic Wars, but have mentioned many of the colonial clashes and the hoovering up of French and Dutch colonies by the Royal Navy.The two World Wars are treated similarly.The reason for this is partly practical: There is not enough time to do justice to these huge conflicts in addition to all the imperial conflicts.
But there is also a political dimension to this decision which revolves around foreign policy aims.The British took very few colonies in Europe itself and those that it did were mainly for use as naval bases.Its foreign policy for Europe was generally to ensure that no single European power came to dominate the continent.It frequently joined alliances against the French in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the Russians in the mid-Nineteenth Century and the Germans in the Twentieth Century.Its armed forces were frequently called upon to serve on the continent, but it did not become involved in settlement or colonisation after the conflicts had been resolved.
Europe was densely populated, it had a reasonably high technology level and the peoples there were becoming increasingly conscious of their nationalist and linguistic groupings.Besides, the fact that Britain was an island and that it had a large and powerful navy meant that it could afford to pick and choose its level of involvement and commitment on the continent and so it could turn its attention to maritime and non-European trade and opportunities instead.I have therefore concluded that it is best for this site to avoid continental wars, battles and politics.What is a Colony? This is not as easy a question as you might expect.They were basically units of overseas territory controlled by the British Government or organisations (or even individuals) coming from Britain.
There is a full list of these colonies on the Entering and Exiting the Empire page.It also explains the basic classifications of territories - although there were many exceptions.Company Rule - these were when private companies - capitalised from Britain - tried to set up their own colonies as private commercial concerns.They frequently found the administration far more expensive than they expected and so often turned to the British government for help - particularly when wars or rebellions occurred.Colonies were those areas directly ruled by a governor on behalf of the British government and representing the Crown.
The governor was responsible to the Colonial Office in London, although he usually had wide powers of discretion.These were the most common form of imperial control.Protectorates were territories where the local rulers could continue ruling domestically but they had ceded the foreign and defence aspects of their government to the British.Theoretically, the British allowed the rulers full autonomy in domestic affairs although British advisers could and did exercise considerable influence over a range of policies.Dominions were those colonies that were granted significant freedom to rule themselves.
The settler colonies were afforded this freedom.Dominions were fully independent countries after the 1931 Statute of Westminster, although their Head of State continued to be the British sovereign.Mandates were set up after World War One as German and Turkish colonies were passed to Britain and France to prepare for self government on behalf of the League of Nations.After World War Two, the United Nations continued the concept but called these mandates 'Trust Territories'.In addition to these five kinds of 'colony' there were colonies set up by individuals, missionaries and even - in the case of Pitcairn Island by escaped mutineers! Of course these are the areas that had some measure of formal control.
In many ways, British naval, industrial and commercial supremacy was so great that it effectively held sway over an equally impressive 'informal empire'.The best example of this was South America where the Royal Navy was happy to uphold the US so-called 'Monroe Doctrine' as it suited British commercial and strategic concerns at very little cost to the taxpayer.In many ways, formal control was often extended when informal relationships collapsed or were challenged by other European rivals.How Big was the British Empire? Of course, the British Empire expanded and contracted wildly over the years.It became fairly large with the ever expanding American colonies in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, particularly after the defeat of the French in the Seven Years War.
The American Revolution lost much (but not all) of this territory, but the expansion of British interests in India filled this vacuum.It really was the victory in the Napoleonic Wars that allowed the British to hoover up naval bases and create toe-holds across the world.
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These would generally provide the jumping off points for the massive expansion in the Victorian period.Advances in medicine, transport and communication systems helped make even more of the world accessible with Africa providing the last spur to European Imperialism in the latter half of the Nineteenth Century.World War One appeared to add yet more colonies to the British Empire in the form of mandates Should i purchase presentation agricultural technology single spaced APA A4 (British/European) Premium.
World War One appeared to add yet more colonies to the British Empire in the form of mandates.
I have created a list of the populations and sizes of the colonies in 1924 a territorial highpoint of Empire - although economically the Empire would begin to enter its period of decline in this Inter-war years period.But it was still estimated at this time to cover between a quarter and a third of the globe and that it represented an area of over one hundred and fifty times the size of Great Britain itself 4 Jun 2017 - UK · World · Europe · Business Open Farm Sunday, sponsored by some of the UK's biggest in rolling fields do nothing to inform people of the truth about how farm animals Even more shockingly, less than 10 per cent of chickens are Whenever buying chicken Lymbery advises consumers look for .But it was still estimated at this time to cover between a quarter and a third of the globe and that it represented an area of over one hundred and fifty times the size of Great Britain itself.The Second World War would see much imperial territory threatened or temporarily lost.Despite being on the winning side, the Empire would not recover from the geo-political shifts caused by this Second World War and would enter into a period of terminal decline.
India was the first and largest area to be shed and then the Middle East and then Africa.
Various Caribbean and Pacific possessions held on a little longer but most of these also went their separate way.The last of the major colonies to be lost was that of Hong Kong in 1997.Theories of Empire Historians have long debated how and why the British were able to amass such a formidable and expansive empire in the years since 1497.And why were the British able to supplant the Portugese, Dutch and Spanish Empires in the Seventeenth and eighteenth Centuries and effectively see off French, Russian and German challenges over the nineteenth and early twentieth Centuries? These debates still rage and there is no definitive answer.For students, I have put a wider range of factors on the Student Zone brainstorm boards but some of the more commonly stated reasons are explained below.
Christianity, Commerce and Civilisation This was a popular combination of factors given for the rise of the British Empire in the late nineteenth and early twentieth Centuries.The Protestant aspect of Christianity was seen by many within the British Empire as part of the larger battle with the more 'Catholic' nations of Continental Europe.Ever since the Reformation, religion represented not merely a spiritual difference between the Catholic and Protestant churches but was part of a far larger cultural and political competition between deadly rivals.Portugal, Spain and France were the Catholic nations who developed successful commercial empires before the English (and Dutch) were able to do so.Religion gave an excuse for this commercial rivalry to turn into military and political competition.
The very success of the Protestant nations in challenging the Catholic hegemony in the New World and the East Indies seemed to confirm that God might be on the Protestants' side after all - although this did ignore the fact that the English and Dutch co-religionists were just as frequently found at the throats of one another.It was certainly helpful that the Protestant work ethic meant that Christian and commercial ideals could be reconciled fairly easily and in fact was thought to manifest itself in the improvement and development of British civilisation in general.In pre-industrial Britain, the combination of the these three factors would lead to the creation of the settler colonies in North America.Devout Christians would look for economic freedom from feudal relationships in this New World.However, mercantalism and then the industrial revolution meant that this commercial aspect could take on a more sinister role as monopoly power, slavery or exploitative working conditions became a temptation hard for investors or capitalists to resist.
It was reassuring to many such capitalists that they could hide behind the idea that by investing in enterprises and schemes around the world that they were serving a modernising and civilising goal and so their consciences could be clear in such a noble enterprise.The civilisation aspiration could be damaging in its own right.It assumed that British civilisation was innately superior to those it was subjugating.Indeed, the very subjugation process confirmed the superiority of British civilisation! It then assumed that the new rulers were obliged to improve the subjugated peoples that it had taken under its wing with large doses of Christianity and commerce.Of course, this appealed to the positive aspirations that many Imperialists held for the future of a benign Empire.
It offered a justification for Imperialism.However, it could also justify some of the more extreme Social Darwinist ideas of racial superiority and it allowed for treating the subject peoples as innately inferior.In summary, Christianity, commerce and civilisation was a neat way to justify the uniqueness of the British Empire and yet give it a justification for continuing it into the future.It could also be deeply patronising and justified cultural imperialism and racial stereotyping and yet there was a surprisingly large dose of truth behind these motivations and strain of British imperialism.Mercantilism Mercantilism and chartered monopoly companies were becoming quite the fashion in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (and would live on to the nineteenth in some cases.
It was a cheap and relatively easy way for a feudal monarch to gain an income on the back of his nation's prestige and maritime exploits.He (or she) could give permission to explorers to claim lands on his (or her) behalf and then authorise certain companies (with the aid of Charters) to exploit the natural resources in that part of the world in return for a fixed income to the monarch.In many ways it was something for nothing for the ruler.He could provide exclusive (monopoly) rights to certain cronies in return for money, political support or promotion at home.It invariably, but not always, resulted in ignoring the rights of any indigenous or local peoples that were 'in the way'.
If the political entity was too large and powerful then alliances might be entered into or the monarch might lend the company the support of his nation's military wings.The Spanish and Portugese long used this system of government, and the French and Dutch followed suit.It was to be no surprise that England (then Britain) would also follow this model - at least for a while.The Stuart monarchs were particularly keen on this economic model - especially as it seemed to provide the permanently cash-strapped Stuarts with much needed money.Companies were often more interested in making a profit than in taking care of the people it ruled over.When rebellions or riots broke out, it was invariably the government who had to come to the rescue as the company's resources would be quickly depleted by long, drawn out and expensive campaigns.The famous 'East India Company' had to go cap in hand to the British Government to save it from bankruptcy but not before many individual investors and directors had made fortunes.They would sell their shares when it looked like trouble was looming - it was the small or institutional shareholders who invariably got caught out - or the British taxpayer! Slavery would show just how exploitative and morally bankrupt this system could descend to.Plantations needed labour and labour was available, relatively cheaply, in West Africa.
It was when slaves started revolting and rising up in rebellions that questions were asked back in Britain - why precisely was the government spending money and resources supporting slave owners against slaves? They had not shared the profits in the 'good' years, why should British taxpayers support them now that they were suffering? Surely it was their own problem? Non-conformist Christians in particular found it easier to challenge the status quo of slavery when their moral arguments were joined by these no less tricky economic ones.Technological and Industrial Superiority The British had no monopoly on technological innovation.Gunpowder, the printing press, navigational equipment were all developed and improved on the continent or further afield yet.Europe from the fifteenth century onwards was becoming a dynamic place where new ideas were swirling around with unnatural haste.Britain was benefitting from this much wider European Renaissance and Age of Enlightenment and yet it was also in a position to take these ideas, and many others, much further as it would become the first nation to harness the power of steam which in turn would unleash an Industrial Revolution and an avalanche of high quality, mass-produced goods that would flood markets all around the world.
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They, in turn, would provide a technology gap that non-European nations would find difficult to compete with.Precision-made muskets, rifles, machine guns, train locomotives, steam ships would provide the relatively small and over-stretched British armed forces with unparalleled advantages.They could take on vastly larger (and possibly braver) enemies and yet beat them off, subdue and suppress them 1 Jan 2015 - 1.7 HOW WILL LIFE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROJECTS BE LIFE is the European Programme for the Environment and Climate signed (where applicable) A4 size paper forms. The overall objective of a Technical Assistance project is writing an IP of 25 October 2012 (JO L 298 of 26/10/2012);..They could take on vastly larger (and possibly braver) enemies and yet beat them off, subdue and suppress them.
British weaponry was very effective and its communication systems allowed it to shepherd its meagre resources to devastating effect and even its medical resources would improve enough to allow its soldiers and sailors to penetrate deeper and more inaccessible areas.
Britain was not the only nation to enjoy a technological advantage over non-European nations, but its combination of industrial might, commercial prowess and maritime power meant that it had a peculiar advantage and one that would not be challenged until the development of guerilla warfare and tactics in the Twentieth Century.
Strategic Imperatives Sir John Seeley once stated that the British Empire was acquired in a 'fit of absent-mindedness'.What he meant by this was that the Empire was acquired for a variety of reasons that did not add up to a coherent whole.He also had in mind the fact that new colonies were being added in order to defend existing colonies and borders.The best example of this might be the colony of India.It was certainly regarded as the Jewel in the Crown of the British Empire but it also meant that a surprising number of supporting colonies would be added to guard the so-called 'Jewel' itself or the routes to and from the Jewel.
For example, the British were keen to take control of the Cape Colony from the Dutch during the Napoleonic Wars to secure the main sea route to India.Helena, Mauritius and the coastline of Aden were all added for similar reasons.Of course, when the Suez Canal was opened in the 1869, it was not long before the British took a controlling interest in the Suez Canal Company and soon became involved in controlling the Egyptian administration itself as this new route to Asia displaced the Cape of Good Hope route.Then, once Egypt was a colony, Sudan and Cyprus became part of the Empire.
Even within India itself, British control was expanded from coastal factories to dominate the interior and then becoming involved in acquiring the Himalaya region to defend the approaches to India.There was a relentless logic to guarding the next valley, river or island that soon got the British involved in places that had little strategic importance except to the colonies that it already controlled.Maritime Advantages The Royal Navy would undoubtedly become a formidable military institution, but it was not always inevitable that Britannia would rule the waves.Naturally, being an island nation, ship-building and sailing would be important skills and industries to a country like England.But, Portugal and then Spain had got off to a far more promising start with regards to maritime domination of the seas from the fifteenth century onwards.
They had come to understand the ship design, navigational and long distance skills required to explore and commercially exploit the routes that they discovered.The English were always playing catch up or were merely picking up the scraps left by the Portugese and Spanish.If anything, it was the Dutch and French who first challenged Portugese and Spanish control of the seas.This situation would not really be transformed until the Eighteenth Century.The Glorious Revolution of 1688 where the Dutch King William of Orange took control of the English Crown would reduce, but not remove, Anglo-Dutch rivalry.
However, it would not be until the Seven Years War of 1756 to 1763 that the Royal Navy would take on the far richer and supposedly more powerful Kingdom of France.This was also something of a legacy of the Glorious Revolution in that the Dutch brought sophisticated banking techniques (including the formation of the Bank of England) that would allow the British to borrow money to build a huge Navy.The idea of this investment was to pay back the loans once Britain had been victorious in the war.The French Navy had no such infusion of investment and so they were hard pressed to see off the challenge from the Royal Navy especially on the global scale of what was really the first 'World War' in that it stretched over all corners of the globe.In some ways, the French were able to get an element of revenge by helping the American Revolutionaries in the 1770s and 1780s in their humiliation of the British.
But this in itself would be a false dawn for the French Monarchy.They had invested huge quantities of money to challenge the Royal Navy (and help the Americans to win the Revolutionary War) but without the benefit of receiving tangible assets to recoup this investment.It is not an understatement to say that one of the prime reasons for France's own Revolution was because their cupboard was bare after helping the American Revolutionaries.This of course would lead indirectly to the Napoleonic struggles between France and Britain.Napoleon would concentrate on his land campaigns, but he would be constantly frustrated or harassed by the Royal Navy.
For example, Nelson destroyed Napoleon's fleet at anchor off Egypt in 1798 which killed off his Pyramid Campaign.Napoleon would try to combine the French and Spanish fleets to lure the Royal Navy across the Atlantic to allow him to launch an invasion force against England.The resulting battle of Trafalgar in 1805 became the defining naval battle for the next century.The British did not fall for the lure and ended up blockading the French and Spanish fleets instead.Once these fleets set sail, Nelson directed an aggressive assault that would destroy them and leave the Royal Navy ruling the waves until World War One and beyond.
For the rest of the Nineteenth Century, there was no maritime power who could come close to challenging British domination of the maritime communication and trade routes.This meant that the British could hoover up all the outlying French, Spanish and Dutch colonies in the remainder of the Napoleonic Wars and could then guarantee the safety of all of these isolated and far flung outposts from at least maritime threats.Britannia really would rule the waves and this undoubtedly made imperialism easier to implement and international trade to thrive which also aided the industrialising Britain.Marxist/Leninist Stages of Development One interesting theory to explain Imperialism was borne out of the works of Karl Marx.In fact, it is more due to Lenin's adaptations to Marx's writings that colonialism was brought into the fold, but it relied on the historical determinism put forward by Marx.
Basically, he believed that human societies were travelling through economic stages of development before reaching the Communist Utopia where all are treated equally and all goods are distributed equitably.Feudalism was a pre-condition for Capitalism which in turn was a pre-condition for Communism.It was argued that Capitalism had the seeds of destruction within itself - capitalists would compete with one another as they strived to make more and more profit - but they would be reduced in number but becoming more efficient simultaneously.Eventually, it would be so efficient that it would produce all the worldly goods that consumers would desire, but there would be so few capitalists left that the wage slave workers (who were becoming more and more exploited) would rise up and seize the factories and the means of production.It was Lenin who had to adapt this theory to why a revolution might take place in relatively non-capitalist Tsarist Russia which was barely moving out of the Feudal phase.
He basically added another layer of inevitability to explain that capitalist Europe was competing for the raw materials and markets that colonies could provide.It was this, he explained, that would result in the outbreak of World War One, as European nations desperately competed with one another for colonies and once these ran out, would fight one another for domination - bringing the day forward for the 'real' Communist Revolution.He therefore advocated staying neutral in the Capitalist war but was not averse to taking the opportunity to seize power in October, 1917 as Russia was worn out by the long drawn out attritional, total war.
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Communism was an easy ideology to sell to poor, exploited and oppressed peoples around the world, Communist organisations and groups therefore became major resisters and opponents to Imperial regimes the world over - especially when they became tied to Cold War politics.
Unfortunately, when agricultural or primary resource colonies gained their freedoms with the promises of a Communist Utopia to fulfil it did not take long for disappointment, cronyism and corruption to undermine and discredit Communism as a viable form of government.
It may have given some people inspiration to remove their imperial overlords, it just could not deliver on its promises 3 days ago - The Long and Difficult Road to a U.S.-U.K. Trade Deal business rivalry, as those looking to get in on a private fundraising by Jack Ma's financial-technology firm must agree not to invest in companies controlled Farm Bill's Defeat Marks Setback for Paul Ryan Photos of the Day: May 20 The 10-Point..It may have given some people inspiration to remove their imperial overlords, it just could not deliver on its promises.
Informal Empire Another interesting theory was one proposed by two economic historians, Gallagher and Robinson, who basically stated that the British Empire actually tried not to take colonies if at all possible.In fact, colonies were almost a sign of failure Need to get agricultural technology presentation confidentiality ASA Platinum double spaced 83 pages / 22825 words.In fact, colonies were almost a sign of failure.They argued that the British were interested in trade opportunities and if they could gain access to markets and raw materials without the need for colonising then so much the better.They gave examples of British 'soft' power existing in the Americas, China and the Mediterranean area.
These were areas where the British could do business but without the overheads and costs of administering and defending territory.The argument explained the late Nineteenth Century surge in acquisitions in being a consequence of having to respond to the aggressive competition with other European powers who were keen to take the lands, markets and resources for themselves and deny them to rivals as the world seemed to turn to protectionism.Even Britain itself was tempted by the Imperial preferences proposed by Chamberlain at the beginning of the 20th century.This theory would radically redraw the imperial map giving precedence to those areas where no formal British control was required at all.Metropolitan Domination One theory for Britain's domination of the large slices of the world was described as Britain being able to have taken in the resources of the various colonies in form of goods, capital, science and populations and then reallocated them more efficiently using the institutions and condensed political power available in the mother country (the Metropole) and especially those in London.
This theory is based on the idea of the strong central government, educational, commercial and financial institutions which mutually reinforced one another and used the resources of the empire to further enrich themselves and build up an ever stronger competitive advantage - economically, strategically and politically.It believed that the institutions used their wealth and power to guard their positions of power and to further their own interests using the Empire as a conduit or arena in which to exercise their talents and power.In this model, the periphery colonies were at the tender mercies of the dominant metropole and had little local control over their destinies but had merely to respond to orders and directions from the centre.Complex Patchwork of Interacting and Dynamic Agencies Coming somewhat full circle in the debate is the idea that the Empire was a far more complex, ad hoc collection of competing, dynamic collection of agencies, individuals and companies which had no set agenda but found the Empire a convenient arena in which to forward their own interests.Unlike the Metropole example above, this theory believed that the actors could literally come from all over the globe, including native peoples or their rulers and had no fixed example of what the Empire should be like.
This theory sees the variety of colonial governments, forms and institutions as evidence of a far more haphazard but flexible approach to the concept of what constituted empire.Some actors were happy to remain on the fringes of a free trade empire, others lobbied for inclusion in a far more centralised form of administration.Some wished to benefit from the protection that the Empire could provide, others used the colonial experience only so long as it was useful to their ends and then jettisoned it when it had outlived its purpose.This theory believes that the empire was a complex intermingling of motives, attitudes and purposes.It also believes that the localisation of these concerns means that a much more nuanced appraisal of Empire is possible as successes and failures can be itemised and broken up regionally and by era.
Empire was useful to some groups or colonies at some points in time but exploitative or damaging at others.Using this theory, it is less a zero-sum game of saying that Empire was a 'good' or 'bad' thing as in some other theories.Combination of Factors Of course, there is rarely a single answer to the complicated realities of politics, economics and military rivalry.There is probably no single reason to explain how Britain created such a vast institution.Various isolated reasons, advantages and localised situations would combine to create a series of justifications for seizing isolated colonies that combined to form the huge and expansive British Empire.
Historians have debated the motivations and justifications for these processes for pretty much as long as their has been an empire itself! If you would like to follow the historiography and debates on the the British Empire over the years please take a look at the Library section.Administration of Empire The British Empire was certainly not a harmonized nor a homogenous institution.The various ways that it acquired responsibilities for large tracts of the World's landmass and populations meant that it dealt with administration and governance in an equally haphazard, changing and evolving way.In the earliest stages, boards and trustees of companies were as likely to be responsbile for the effective governance of their far flung trading stations and concerns.The most famous example of this was the East India Company which found that the business of government could be just as profitable as that of trade with the steady flow of taxes pleasing the accountants back in London - at least in the short term.
Over time, rebellions, natural disasters and wars stretched the financial abilities of these early Chartered Companies to breaking point and beyond.Queen Elizabeth I established the precedent that she would extend the protection of the Crown to any of her subjects wherever in the world they should live.This was as a result of claims to land made in the New World by Sir Walter Raleigh - however unsuccessful these early attempts were.This principle was continued by James I and all subsequent monarchs.However, this theoretical protection was often undermined by the distances and time required to lodge petitions and by their likely unfamiliarity in the way that the Royal Court worked.
In general, a sympathetic and well connected person would have to bring the plight of any particular group of native peoples to the attention of the monarch and this would often be weighed against the influence of those connected with interested commercial concerns.Additionally, over time, Parliament exerted more and more influence over affairs in the colonies as the power of British monarchs steadily declined over the coming centuries.Both Monarchs and the British Parliament found out for themselves that the rights of settlers and the rights of indigenous populations frequently were at odds with one another.Occasionally a monarch found himself supporting one group whilst Parliament another.These divergent views on rights and responsibilities were later exacerbated with when settler colonies were granted their own Parliaments in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.
The British Monarch, British Parliament and settler Parliaments could all see issues through a different lense and could find themselves disagreeing on important issues especially like land allocation and the treatment of indigenous populations.Back in the Seventeenth Century, even when the government was interested in imperial affairs it still tended to revolve around revenue and profit as the establishment of 'The Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations' in 1621 by King James I attested.He was more concerned at why income and trade was declining and administration costs were rising rather than any of the rights and responsibilities of either settlers or indigenous populations.This was effectively a temporary committee of the King's Privy Council - but it got caught up in the mid-Seventeenth Century upheavals that saw the country descend into Civil War and found itself increasingly sidelined and ineffectual.1660 saw Charles II relaunch something similar with the creation of 'The Council of Foreign Plantations'.
This Council had specific responsibility for the Americas and the Caribbean which were the most important concerns at the time.This was demonstrated in 1675 when they began the process of trying to harmonise the various colonies into Royal ones.They successfully brought New Hampshire under Crown governance, they modified William Penn's Charter and refused to reissue Plymouth Colony's more egalitarian Charter.This culminated in the creation of the Dominion of New England in 1685 which saw a single Crown colony for much of the North-Eastern seaboard.
1696 saw the Council modified into a more professional organisation with the appointment of paid commissioners for the first time by King William III.
These were given the title 'The Lords Commissioners of Trade and Foreign Plantations' although they were more commonly known as the 'Lords of Trade'.Two convulsions in the second half of the Eighteenth Century fundamentally altered Britain's relationship to its colonies.The first was the American War for Independence The British Empire.The first was the American War for Independence.
Problems in the Americas saw the creation of 'A Secretary of State for the Colonies' for the very first time.This post only lasted until 1782 when it was obvious that attempts to retain the 13 colonies had failed .
This post only lasted until 1782 when it was obvious that attempts to retain the 13 colonies had failed.
However, it established a precedent for assigning responsibility for colonial affairs which would be revisited in the not too distant future.In the meantime, the British government divided the duties of its two principal Secretaries of State into 'Home' and 'Foreign'.Colonial affairs were given as a responsibility to the Home Secretary in a branch of the department called 'The Office for Plantations'.The American Revolution did have another consequence as the British government sought to avert something similar happening in India.
From 1773 onwards, the British government sought to increase its oversight of the East India Company - especially as news and examples of incompetence and greed by EIC office holders came to light.The British government gradually gave more responsibilities to the Company in return for financial, political and military support.This culminated in 1784 with a Board of Control to oversee the activities of the EIC.The second convulsion to alter Britain's relationship to its colonies was that of Revolution in France followed by the Napoleonic wars.As the threat of Revolution spiralled beyond France's and then the Continent's borders, so the colonies became the responsibility of the Secretary of State for War.
This was formalised in 1801 with the title of 'The Secretary of State for War and the Colonies'.As the Empire grew in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars so there was seen the need to create a Permanent Under-Secretary for the Colonies from 1825 onwards.1837 saw the first attempts at regulating the conduct of imperial officials with the publication of "Colonial Regulations" relating to "His Majesty's Colonial Service".However, each colony was responsible for hiring its own personnel and remunerating them accordingly.The Departments of War and the Colonies were not to be formally separated until 1854 at the time of the Crimean War.
By this time, the British Empire had spilled into South East Asia and the Far East and it was clear that the ever increasing institution required a ministry of its own once more.'The Secretary of State for the Colonies' was created and remained as a cabinet post until 1966.The 'Colonial Office' peaked in importance with the appointment of Joseph Chamberlain in 1895 and was still an enormous government department until just after World War Two when it began its inevitable decline.You can read a more detailed account of the role of the Colonial Office here.There had been two main orgnisational exceptions to the remit of the Colonial Office.
The first was to be 'Protectorates' which were initially under the authority of the Foreign Office until the first decade of the Twentieth Century.The second exception was to be that of the Dominions.In 1907 a Dominion Division was created within the Colonial Office but in 1925 a new Secretaryship of State for Dominion Affairs was appointed, albeit still within a single Dominions and Colonial Office.This joint establishment was formally separated in 1947 on Indian Independence when a separate Commonwealth Relations Office was created alongside the Colonial Office.One bureaucratic innovation that was to have a profound influence on the administration of Empire was born out of the Indian Mutiny in 1857/8.
This was the establishment of a separate Secretary of State for India and the creation of the Indian Civil Service from 1858 onwards.The 1858 Government of India Act meant that India was actually governed separately and outside the control of the Colonial Secretary.It was thought to be big enough and rich enough to require its own representation within the British government and to be able to sustain its own administration also.Entrance to the Indian Civil Service was to be by competitive examination which encouraged a high calibre of applicants and a high esprit de corps amongst those successful enough to pass the vigorous testing regime.The ICS were often referred to as the 'heaven born' or 'civilians' and wielded substantial powers across the sub-continent.
They were famed for their apparent incorruptability which had been pressed upon them as a reaction to EIC administration whose corrupt rule had been held at least partly responsible for the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny itself.However, the reputation of the ICS was such that colonial governments in other parts of the world sought to emulate and aspire to the levels of governance and honesty exhibited by the ICS - perhaps the closest to come to this realisation was the Sudan Political Service which garnered its own formidable reputation.This was not to say that the ICS did not have its problems.It was criticised for having too few Indian members and, given their responsibility for law and order, often it was at loggerheads with the Indian Nationalist movements.However, its reputation for financial probity, professionalism and honesty impressed many who came across its work.
The Colonial Service, per se, was not a united service until after 1927.Up until this time, each colony was responsible for its own administrative officers and applicants had to apply directly to the colonial government in question.Initially, most applicants were bureaucrats required to help run colonial administration, but over time, more and more specialised, technical experts were required as foresters, geologists, educators, etc.This increasing regard for the quality of administrators saw the creation of training programs for newly recruited officials.
The first of these was inaugurated in 1908 in response to the sudden massive increase in African territories to administer.The Imperial Institute in South Kensington started a three month training program in law, accountancy, tropical hygiene and tropical resources.However, it was not until the interwar years that training programs were put in place for all personnel going out to the colonies when a unified Colonial Service finally came into being.Further information on The Colonial Service Training Courses can be found here.
It was The Colonial Office conference of 1927 which finally recommended the unification of all the territorial services and functional branches into a single HM Colonial Service for the first time.
This new Colonial Service was divided into sixteen separate services.with each of its officers being a member of the civil service of the territory in which he served and also of the appropriate sub-service of the Colonial Service.The Colonial Administrative Service (CAS) provided something of the generalist bureaucrats whilst the remaining fifteen subservices provided niche specialist services: Colonial Agricultural Service